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Space mining – the concept of bringing commercially valuable ores and isotopes down to Earth has been captivating the imaginations of space advocates, engineers, futurists, visionaries, and science fiction fans alike. The idea itself is nothing new, as it can be traced back to Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky and his „Dreams of Earth and Sky” and similar works of early modern science fiction, or in some metaphorical aspect in H. G. Well’s „The War of the Worlds”. In fact, for more than a century space miners, robotic mining worms and asteroid hauling had been only a topic of theoretical studies and speculations. Recent developments in the international geo and astropolitics as well as in the national and international space law brought the topic of space resources back on the table. But what exactly are they?
In the vaguest and the most basic sense – they are the harnessable and obtainable matter and energy residing or originating beyond the boundaries of Earth. Some would argue that the term should cover not only the aforementioned but also the physical properties, like orbits, microgravity, or exposition to the cosmic rays. For the sake of clarity, we will not include orbits microgravity or cosmic rays as a resource, but provide them with a proper mention in later paragraphs. Thus we are left with matter and energy. Matter comes in all forms, minerals, ice, gases, particles, compounds, dust, plasma. The simplest concept of obtaining extraterrestrial matter for industrial purposes is frequently called the space mining. The term is used to describe industrial mining activities, mostly focused on obtaining valuable metals (PGMs), Rare Earth Elements (REEs), and isotopes from the surface or subsurface of celestial bodies. As with classical mining, space mining includes the notions of being profit-driven, continuous, and operated on an industrial scale. Another commodity, often being omitted or dwarfed in the conversation by the sheer value of the aforementioned metals and minerals in USD, is water. Water might not sound as profitable as platinum, yet it is an invaluable resource when it comes to its proper use in the outer space. As most popular discussions about space mining revolve around the prospect and wealth of ore being brought down to Earth, water is the commodity whose destination resides in Earth orbit. The main use for water, apart form potable water for astronauts and their life support, including heat management and shielding, is propulsion. The Lox/LH2 propellant, being respectively comprised of liquid oxygen as the oxidizer and liquid hydrogen as fuel is being used in upper stages of several contemporary launching vehicles and may act as a basis for a space tug. Space tugs, also known as orbital transfer vehicles or in-space servicing vehicles, which are engines, fuel, and oxidizer tanks, and means of control, equipped with grapplers or docking ports for fixing its payload or it to any space object. Essentially space tugs are „space rockets” for space use only, whose purpose is to use their engines thrust to change the payload’s or object orbit, send it to the graveyard orbit, force it to re-enter the atmosphere or help the payload or object perform an orbital transfer maneuver. There are also variants of space tugs designed to work as permanent station-keeping thrusters or as refueling servicers. This is where the issue of fuel comes in. As a civilization living on the bottom of a gravity well, we are bound by the rocket equation, forcing us to reconsider the scientific payload and the architecture of our commercial and industrial space objects. This includes the amount of fuel for thruster firing when an object performs orbital maneuvers. Depletion of space objects fuel supply will cause it to be subjected to forces of gravity, atmospheric drag, radiation pressure (the Yarkovsky effect), and the solar wind in some areas. A space object that is defunct or otherwise out of control (lost communication, ran out of fuel) will become a piece of what is collectively called the space debris. Thus a potential hazard to other space objects. Any means to service an object, allow it to regain control, deorbit or move it to an in-space recycling point requires the servicer to be launched from the bottom of our atmosphere and gravity well, bearing the same constraints as every launch does. Therefore any such activity employing space servicers or space tugs requires an in-space resupply and fuel source. The best known for now, when considering chemical rockets is water, or to be precise, hydrogen and oxygen, which can be obtained even without the need to melt ice deposits in lunar permanent shadow regions. There also ideas that use water as propellant that would include its rapid evaporation of in the form of steam. The steam rocket or the laser thermal or solar thermal rocket is one of the ideas to utilize water as a reaction mass without the need of fuel and oxidizer. However, these concepts could be utilized in the same manner as the nuclear thermal rockets, by using only superheated hydrogen as a propellant, with no need for oxidizer.
It is here where we jump to the other valuable resources present on the Moon and the other astronomical objects, known in the international space law as the celestial bodies. If it is not only water that can be used for propulsion, then what else can be used? The truth is that many things can be used as a propellant or reaction mass while dealing with celestial mechanics and space travel. The main limitation will its feasibility and reliability. One might recall the classical saying about the person with a hammer seeing everything as a form of a nail, but the reference is more positive in the case of in-situ space resource utilization (ISRU). In the case of in-space propulsion, hydrogen-oxygen mixtures, liquid water, liquid hydrogen, are not the only processable resources to be used as propellants found in outer space. There is, of course, the case for methane, ethane, other hydrocarbons, and even regolith or fine iron, if one possesses a proper mass driver technology, some of which were discussed in an application to space travel in the 1970s and 1980s. There is also the ion drive whether of the electromagnetic or the electrostatic variety. Although there have been successful experiments with “breathing” ion thrusters (air-breathing in that manner), at the moment we shall briefly discuss the non-breathing systems consuming their propellant to obtain thrust. Depending on the design, they might use different particles as a propellant. From hydrogen, ammonia, nitrogen, helium to argon, bismuth, indium, cesium, mercury, krypton, and xenon. Hydrogen, helium, and argon have already been found on the Moon and in the solar wind, while ammonia, nitrogen had been found in carbonaceous asteroids, the surface of Mars and the outer planets, as well as the cometary bodies. Bismuth, cesium, mercury, and indium have been found in the lunar crust, however, krypton and xenon are a more tricky bunch. They have been found in the solar wind or on the Moon within the lunar samples and the negligible atmosphere, however, xenon is found within the solar wind, the Sun’s atmosphere, and in a great abundance within Jupiter’s atmosphere and clathrates of icy comets. Either way, as for contemporary approaches to space resources, such as classical space mining, these elements are of no use and are ignored. For now at least, as the principle approach to space resources is having the means to extract, store, or utilize them. With proper means at hand, even the sodium tail of the Moon can be a resource.
Mooncrafting – the art of lunar survival
As one can start to realize, there is a point when ISRU, the survival and sustainable approach of living of the land in space and providing objects and crew with structural materials and consumables, akin to bushcrafting starts to merge with the old concept of space mining. While from the engineering, scientific, or even visionary standpoint that is nothing out of the ordinary to come to the understanding of “what and how can we use out there”, it does affect both space policy and space regulatory regimes. I have mentioned PGMs, REEs, propellants for chemical, thermal and ion propulsion, while practically ignoring plasma propulsion, and experimental solar sails, mag-sails or cyclers (like the Aldrin cycler or the Schroeder cycler). But what I have left out most of all is all the other materials, energy sources, and properties of outer space that can be called a natural, abiotic resource, which could be obtained and used for industrial purposes, on the condition of developing a sufficient technology. And of course, assuming that this technology has not become outlawed by some new international treaty.
Of robots and microbes
In the case of establishing automated robotic industrial ecosystems, some difficulties will require a biomimetic approach to overcome them. Automated factories, construction and manufacturing robots, rovers, haulers, bulldozer-like dirt movers have been discussed in numerous publications, need to be in some manner self-perpetuating. To achieve higher levels of sustainability, these machines should be designed in a way that would allow them to be manufactured, repaired or even rebuild using parts and components produced using locally available resources, or available on other celestial bodies, which allows for their transport without involving launches from the surface of the Earth. This means that structural elements would need to be manufactured of available materials, such as regolith derived silicates, iron, nickel, as well as PGM and REE elements for electronics. Although it reminds some of the classical Moore’s „Artificial Living Plant” or von Neumann’s „Universal Constructor” or self-replicating machines, there are parallels but also there are differences in our current abilities to create machines based on the mentioned proposals. In the case of a lunar industrial system, there were several ideas for self-replicating, Growing lunar factories which were supposed to be able to both perform their industrial purpose, as well as self-supply and self-maintain themselves. This approach, although quite science-fiction at first glance, indirectly resembles that of natural terrestrial life forms. A machine system comprised of pioneering machines (which extract minerals and metals from the lunar soil, preparing the resources for the other machines in a similar way that bacteria inoculate the terrestrial soil, which makes it easier for plants and fungi to thrive), manufacturing and construction machines (using preprocessed or processed resources to manufacture parts, elements, systems, and whole machines or structures), transports, that would be heavily reliant on solar energy or chemical or nuclear power would need to base its design on available resources. These aspects are true both to autonomous industrial machines and crewed stations. As humans would need to grow their food and in some way replicate as much of their natural ecosystem via life support as they can to survive beyond the confines of Earth. Humans cannot eat regolith, but can eat plants, that can be grown in hydroponics or microbially enhanced lunar soil with added nitrates. Although Iosif Shkovsky would disagree with the phrase “you are what you eat”, life forms are composed of the matter they metabolize, although there are cases of kleptoplasty. It is a process where an organism sequesters the plasts of its food source, such as plants and utilizes them. This is best shown on the Elysia Chlorotica sea slug, which tends to devour algae not to feed on their nutritious proteins but to appropriate their chloroplast and utilize them for photosynthesis. However, an artificial equivalent of kleptoplasty would have involved machines “consuming” other machines and gaining their properties, and that as a too far out speculation, although using scrap metal and spares from space debris or broken space objects is one of the future aims in space sustainability. However, the analogies to terrestrial lifeforms can be raised to point out some peculiar concepts.
First of all, organic compounds are abundant in outer space and on some celestial bodies, which is provided with means and purposes that could be utilized by the industry. I have mentioned ethane and methane, yet there have been many more organics found within comets, meteorites, and some asteroids, which include the likes of formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or even the sugar ribose. Second of all, is the proposed use of microbes as the „pioneer organisms” in an extraterrestrial biomining. These would be mostly synthetic organisms or even of the xenobiological (XNA based) variety. There had been thought experiments describing organism-habitats like the „Dyson Trees”, though never thoroughly studied outside of the realm of skeletal speculation. However, as in the case of natural terrestrial organisms, synthetic organisms or even self-replicating microbe-mimicking machines might raise concerns over the possibility of harmful contamination, as organisms or machines that could uncontrollably thrive and replicate might permanently jeopardize the search for possible life beyond Earth.
A walk in the Sun
Going back to our resource metabolizing concepts, we have to realize that the ability to live off the „land” and utilize local materials for construction, production, manufacturing, and growth needs to be a feature not only for lunar industrial systems, but also orbital, terrestrial and even in the future, the solar system-wide industrial or logistical network. That however requires energy. Being able to similarly tap available energy sources or means of sustainable power generation will mean a giant leap for any space project, industrial, residential, or scientific. Within the “inner system”, which ends just outside of Mars, at the asteroid belt, the main source of power will be solar radiation. As Kraft A. Ehricke stated, our world is no more closed with its biosphere than it is flat, while others like Rachel Armstrong and Peter J. Vajk add that our ecosystem is an open system, powered by the stellar fusion reactor we watch every day when the sky is clear. With the Sun, complex multicellular life might have not emerged, although, there are speculations on the possibility of chemoautotrophic organisms in the dark yet geologically active celestial bodies, such as rogue planets. However we, as beings thriving in a Sun-powered planetary ecosystem, have learned not only to utilize the light and heat of the Sun but also consume organisms that photosynthesize, as well as use solar-derived sources of energy, mainly wood and fossil fuels of the biotic origin. There are also other sources of energy that we have learned to harness on Earth, such as tidal forces, gravity and streams, air currents, geothermal energy, and of course nuclear power. Outer space is only a set of different environments, but the basic principles of harnessing natural energy sources remain the same. The technology which allows converting solar power in outer space has to be adapted to a different set of environmental factors than that of Earth and could be better adapted for converting ultraviolet or infrared wavelengths. There were also proposed concepts of the “solar-windmills” or the solar wind power satellites, using the Lorentz force on moving charged particles, which would in turn create a current flow. However, the solar wind is not only simply a stream of charged particles and magnetoplasma, or rather they are not nameless stock particles. They are mostly comprised of hydrogen and helium. And here is the catch with helium 3 (He3), the fuel of the future as some hail it. The extraterrestrial helium 3 is a stable isotope of helium. Currents of the solar wind deposit helium and its isotopes on the surface of celestial bodies, their atmospheres, and magnetic fields. Thus, contrary to the popular misunderstanding, helium 3 does not grow on the Moon, nor it is the only deposit of said isotope. Many commentators do not recall the old works on space industrialization, that were written before the discovery of He3 in Apollo 17 lunar samples, gathered by Harrison “Jack” Schmitt, nearly 14 years after they have been brought back to Earth. He3 was supposed to be mined in the atmosphere of Jupiter but turned out to be closer to home. Still, we can ask, what would be the difference between mining He3 on the Moon, or as some suggested, catching it straight from the solar wind. Or even to some extent gathering it from Earth’s magnetosphere, especially the Van Allen belts, where the charged particles reside. Helium 3 is not as efficient as nuclear fuel as thorium or uranium, yet it produces a negligible amount of radioactive waste products. It is most commonly speculated, that the best use for helium 3 is with deuterium, which is also abundant in outer space, has been found in comets, and on the surface of the Moon and planet Mars. Solar radiation itself and solar wind maybe even are used as a means of propulsion. Proposals for solar sail or magsail/beamed propulsion cyclers maneuvering between two celestial bodies have been made for the future Mars exploration or lunar industrialization. Even if not directly used for generating thrust, or electricity, solar radiation is also a great source of heat, to which several space mining or manufacturing projects point. Using mirrors to heat water ice residing within permanently shadowed regions of the Moon or other such bodies, or the concept of optical mining of asteroids just another way to utilize available resources in outer space. Although, there is a problem of heat management in microgravity, especially if one decides to heat an artificially covered asteroid or prepare it for the future interior space colony. That last part needs heavy reconsideration, for lacking a heatsink, an object will melt or vaporize rendering it useless, due to it needing time to radiate its heat into the vacuum of outer space. And without some form of solidification or structural reinforcement, any “spinning asteroid” colonies will break up due to the stress produced by the spin intended to give its hollow out the interior a centrifugal force that would simulate terrestrial gravity at sea level.
There is also the magnetosphere itself and the concept of charged tethers using the Lorentz force for maneuvering or electric conduction when interacting with the ionosphere of a planetary body or its magnetic field in the case of the gas giants like of Jupiter. Although, van Allen belts tend to be dangerous for both living organisms and artificial space objects, they are only a part of a planetary magnetosphere. In the case of the Earth the outer magnetosphere, the magnetopause, and the geotail or plasma tail shall have their effects on systems placed on Moon. Especially when it passes through the bowshock and out into the open, for the solar wind to blow on it. Though lacking a magnetosphere of its own, the Moon is being constantly charged and bombarded with ions, which can cause phenomena such as Moon fountains and twilight rays. Although, the charge causes some regolith particles to electrostatically levitate it can be harnessed as a source of power, although minuscule as it is.
Freefall and other delights
Although not resources per se, gravity or microgravity are also the things to consider as a valuable when it comes to industrial processes. First of all, gravity is the force that allows natural and artificial satellites to orbit a major celestial body. Orbital slingshots are one of the ways in which they are used, and that is precisely the principle behind cyclers. As I have discussed the use of space tugs as orbital transfer vehicles, however there is also a different use of orbits. Not only do they provide proper positions for artificial satellites of a different variety, but they can also provide the heavy manufacturing industry with microgravity. Microgravity environment has been studied since the advent of the space age, with experiments carried out on Soyuz, Salyut, Skylab, Spacelab, Mir, ISS, Shenzou, and Tyangyong. These experiments varied from material sciences to life sciences. Since 2014, there had been commercial experiments in microgravity experiments involving 3D printers and ZBLAN optic fiber extruders being carried out on board of the ISS. The use of microgravity not only helped scientists learn more about the „unearthly” environment, but also study protein crystals, metal alloys, and improvement of electrophoresis in outer space. Although microgravity is more of a feature of the outer space, terrestrial orbits are considered a limited natural resource by the International Telecommunication Union, along with radio frequencies. This is because there is limited space on given orbits and limited spectrum of radio bands – thus safety requires us to avoid interference and collisions of space objects operating on orbits.
And let’s not forget the hard vacuum of outer space, which has inspired many tales of horror as well as taught us many things about spacecraft design. Not only is the hard vacuum of outer space much greater than the contemporary industrial vacuum, but some of its properties pose both challenges and opportunities. One of which is directly related to the properties of materials in a vacuum. Vacuum cementing is a process, where two solid objects are fused together. An example of such a phenomenon may be found in lunar regolith or in space probes in which two metal surfaces have been fused, hindering their mobility and rendering them useless. However, like in the famous humorous chart on the use of duct-tape or „WD-40”, the question is “should it move”? The use of vacuum cementing might be useful for makeshift constructions or constructions which do not require the object to withstand high acceleration or stresses.
Have suits – will travel
So why do lawyers need to know all of this? It is a matter of professionalism for lawmakers and policymakers to understand the complexity of the matter they are about to regulate. In principle, as shown above, there is a troubling trend in space law and space policy to interpret outer space as just another continent or just another sea. In a sense, the magnetohydrodynamic flow of the solar wind or the concept of solar sails and even the terminology of astronauts and space ships remind us of the great voyages of the age of sail. Yet as presented above, there are differences in what we can define and use as a space resource. The opponents of space resource utilization or space resource activities regulated outside of the UN system tend to conflate the terms and focus mostly on the terrestrially valuable resources which is an error of itself. One cannot blame them, as the robust ISRU projects have been long forgotten to all but a few passionate people. The mainstream media and start-up culture also oversimplified the issue, speaking in the terms of trillions of dollars made from bringing to Earth asteroid wealth. This has reinforced the belief, that the Moon and other celestial bodies are merely new continents that are full of valuable ores. Recent media pieces and op-eds have done the same with coverages of Executive Order 13914 on Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources. Panic mongering, moral pandering, self-flagellation, and mainly the lack of understanding of what space resources are. And this is what causes all of this ruckus, cries for redistribution, or “sharing of benefits” (especially the monetary ones) in the same manner as it has been regulated in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1984 (UNCLOS). The Moon Agreement from 1979, which regulatory acts as some b-grade villain that always returns with a new “revenge”, has some provisions, especially those contained within article 11, that were based on the same concept of „common heritage of mankind” as articles 136-138 of the UNCLOS. And this principle of common heritage of mankind itself is rooted in a mostly outdated idea of the new international economic order – the one that has been superseded by establishing the World Trade Organization. One can get that in a flat-Earth, geocentric world looking like a board game, a zero-sum game for that matter, having an extra-board source of income may seem like cheating, and it would be nice to share it among other players. Or else. That “else” might be anything from throwing a tantrum, imposing embargoes, tariffs, or even threats of using force (“flipping the board”).
Not understanding the complexity of ISRU concepts renders any regulation on space resource utilization renders the law as fallible as those who wrote produced it. While space mining in the classical sense will occur, aiming for the water as its first resource, as I have shown above, that is not where space resource activities end. Lawyers and policymakers should ask themselves, what would be the difference between mining He3 on the Moon, or as suggested, catching it straight from the solar wind. Same with comets – will there be a difference between active mining of cometary volatiles and isotopes by robots on the surface and robotic craft passively gathering these materials from the coma? And what astronomical objects can one mine? Can one mine the Kordylewski clouds at Lagrange points? Would redirecting asteroids be considered mining? Or can we catch meteoroids and space dust for profit? Would nudging an asteroid in such a manner that it would break up at its Roche limit within the gravity field of a larger planetary body, and then collecting the “debris” constitute mining? Many things have been suggested and studied in the field of astronautics and space manufacturing or utilization of extraterrestrial materials. And what of using the Van Allen belts to produce energy or thrust, or gather high energy particles or antiparticles. Would access the atmospheres of Venus or gas giants be considered mining?
Understanding the broad and diverse concepts of space resource utilization would allow policymakers the insight needed to properly regulate the issue. If a space resource is an abiotic resource residing within a celestial body, as the Hague Space Resources Governance Working Group states it in their building blocks, or as an abiotic resource in situ in outer, such as water or minerals, including asteroids, as the US law defines can be seen as more a more intermediary approach in space legislature. From declaring the natural resources of other celestial bodies “common heritage of mankind”, to providing basic frameworks for the use, extraction, or obtaining certain space resources is a stepping stone along the way to a broader understanding of the industrial and civilizational opportunities that lie ahead. We could deliberate again on the idea of regolith being a mineral or how to do both acts and the Artemis Accords treat isotopes, yet the point is, that if there would ever be a case for a compulsory benefit-sharing, there will be many cases brought to courts or arbitration. The problem of benefit-sharing gets a little murky here. Earth orbits are frequently recognized as “global commons” – but the Moon is a globe of its own. And extending the idea of global commons beyond the Earth-Moon system would be anti-Copernican to say the least. Yet providing “non-mining” nations with capacity building programs or cosponsored lease of industrial space objects (such as it is the case with some telecom satellites) would be a greater benefit to be shared than creating a “you-fly-and-i-don’t” tax and other forms of monetary benefit sharing. As it was said earlier, this notion of monetary benefit-sharing stems from the simplistic understanding of space resources as the “gold mines”. These are not gold mines – here one person’s overburden is another person’s shielding material. Of course, there is different value and use for different materials, yet creating “uproar prevention taxes” for space resource utilizers will cause more trouble than it will solve problems. Even if some space-faring nations or their nationals find a way to dodge this tax or other form of compulsory “monetary benefit sharing”, the idea itself is very populist and will be a dangerous tool of international politics. It can be said, that the money made by “space miners” can be “redistributed” to help mitigate climate catastrophes and provide a better life for people in the developing world. If the saying about “not being able to eat money” has any truth to it, then we either need to think about solutions involving the use of space resources and outer space (outside of the current use of climate monitoring), brace ourselves for new chapters in the history of corruption, ruined dreams, local activists silenced and getting rich off “helping the poor”. As presented, space resources are a more broad category when applied through the lens of a poliglobal, three-dimensional civilization, than in the “new continent context”.
Therefore any new regulation for the commercial utilization of the celestial bodies (or rather certain categories of such) should include the following:
– safety and security of operations;
– governance and reciprocal approach to authorization of space activities;
– dispute resolution;
– a platform for sharing information of commercial, safety, and scientific use;
– a framework for processing, manufacturing, and construction using space objects with the use of obtained resources;
– liability for damage caused by people and machines;
– the use of synthetic organisms within space objects or on the surface of a celestial body;
– addressing the issues of extraterritorial intellectual property suits;
– recommendations for space debris removal, recycling, reuse, and protection of national heritage sites (space objects and their direct vicinity) on the surface, subsurface, atmosphere, or orbit of a celestial body.
By providing a reasonable framework for near-term space industrial operations involving even a limited scope of space resources but viewed from a “mooncrafting” angle, thus similarly as in the ISRU approach, more can be achieved and a lot could be avoided. That is not to say that there needs to be no oversight or any red-tape. Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty from 1967 (OST) is a red-tape friendly provision, where states authorize, oversee, and bear responsibility for the actions of their space dwelling nationals or remote-controlled or autonomous objects. However, a reasonable national red-tape and regulations are quicker to be superseded or amended than these provided by international law, which is caused by bureaucratic drag taken to a whole new level. This is why a platform such as that being pursued in the Artemis Accords would provide space actors with a proper platform in the form of an Intergovernmental Agreement, such as the ISS Intergovernmental Agreement (ISS IGA). An external framework needs to be put in place to provide safety, sustainability, and dispute resolution for space resource and post-space resource activity operators. It is in some way very sad that the biggest debate still revolves around the basic operations of extracting, obtaining and utilizing space resources, which are the basis of a far bigger set of industrial activities. As outer space and celestial bodies are a dangerous environment, any set of regulation should find its “ecosphere” or “goldilocks zone” – where it is not underregulated to the point that dangerous accidents are happening to incompetence and lack of oversight, as well as not being overregulated, where the bureaucratic uncertainty and drag prohibits the development of any larger scale heavy industrial sector in outer space.
In my closing argument, I should state the following. Space resource utilization, be it out there or down here, should be mainly regulated by an ISS IGA, based on the principles of Hague’s Building Blocks, Moon Village Association’s principles, or principles of the Artemis Accords if the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is no longer a proper platform to discuss the matter. The state parties to the ISS IGA would establish their stations, platforms, vehicles, and other means of operation and create a reciprocal set of rules, rights, and obligations. Some principles or ready templates have been proposed by the Outer Space Institute, The Moon Village Association, and the Hague Space Resources Governance Working Group. Especially Hague Work Group’s Building Blocks give a promise of balance, as they neatly fit the parties to the OST and address the concerns of states that are party to the Moon Agreement. The sooner the rules will be settled and agreed upon, the sooner we can move on to the next regulations for the poly-global space economy. Obtaining resources is merely a tool, not the goal. Yet to understand the goal, one must overcome one’s mental gravity well.
Edited by Mariusz T. Kłoda
Wpis ten nie stanowi opinii lub porady prawnej w rozumieniu obowiązującego prawa. Ma on wyłącznie informacyjny charakter. Autor wpisu nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za ewentualne skutki decyzji, podejmowanych na jego podstawie